Joseon dynasty explained
The Joseon dynasty was a dynastic Korean kingdom that lasted for five centuries or so.
Joseon was established in July 1392 by Yi Seong-gye and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897.
It was built in what is today the city of Kaesong, following the overthrow of Goryeo. Korea was retitled early on and the capital was moved to modern-day Seoul.
Through the subjugation of the Jurchens, the northernmost boundaries of the kingdom were extended to the geographical limits of the rivers of Amnok and Tuman. Joseon was Korea’s last dynasty and its longest-governing Confucian dynasty.
Joseon promoted the consolidation of Chinese Confucian principles and doctrines in Korean society during his reign. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the state philosophy of the new dynasty. Consequently, Buddhism was discouraged and the dynasty occasionally faced persecution. Joseon consolidated his successful rule over the current Korean territories and saw the height of the classical Korean cul cul.
Role of Sejong The Great in Joseon dynasty explained
Sejong the Great ascended the throne in August 1418, following Taejong’s abdication two months earlier. In May 1419, King Sejong embarked on the Gihae Eastern Expedition, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, to eradicate the nuisance of waegu (coastal pirates) who had been operating from Tsushima Island.
The daimyō of Tsushima, Sadamori, surrendered to the Joseon court in September 1419. The Gyehae Treaty was concluded in 1443 in which the Tsushima daimyō was given rights to trade fifty ships a year with Korea in return for sending tribute to Korea and helping to avoid any Waegu coastal pirate attacks on Korean ports.
Sejong built four forts and six posts on the northern frontier to safeguard his people from the Jurchens, who later became the Manchus, living in Manchuria. In 1433, Kim Jong-seo, a government official, was sent north by Sejong to fend off the Jurchens. Several castles were seized by Kim’s military campaign, driven north, and restored to Korea.
Late period in Joseon dynasty explained
After conquering Japan and Manchuria, Joseon endured a peace period of nearly 200 years. Joseon observed Silhak’s emergence (Practical Learning). The early Silhak group of scholars proposed a systematic reform of the review of the civil service, taxes, natural sciences, and development of agricultural and agricultural techniques. After it had been destroyed by the two invasions, it sought to reconstruct Joseon society. Under the leadership of Kim Yuk, King Hyeonjong’s chief minister, the implementation of reforms proved to be highly advantageous to both state revenues and the lot of the peasants. Under the reigns of the kings Sukjong and Gyeongjong, factional conflict grew especially intense, with major rapid reversals of the ruling faction, known as *hwanguk* being commonplace. The next kings, Yeongjo and Jeongjo, usually adopted the Tangpyeongchaek as an answer – a strategy of preserving equilibrium and equality between the factions.
How the joseon dynasty ended.
King Gojong took the throne in 1863. Until Gojong reached adulthood, his aunt, Regent Heungseon Daewongun, ruled over him. The Regent was the principal supporter of isolationism and the instrument of persecution of indigenous and foreign Catholics during the mid-1860s, a policy that contributed directly to the 1866 French Campaign against Korea. A great effort to rebuild the dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority, was also seen in the early years of his reign. The power and authority of the in-law families like the Andong Kims deteriorated sharply during his reign. He supported individuals without regard to political party or family affiliations in order to get rid of the Andong Kim and Pungyang Cho families, and he reformed the tax system in order to reduce the burden of the people and solidify the foundation of the nation’s economy. In 1871, in a U.S. attempt at “gunboat diplomacy” following the General Sherman incident of 1866, U.S. and Korean forces clashed.
Japan beat back the Russian fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in 1905, in a complicated sequence of manoeuvres and counter-maneuvers. The way was open for Japan to take control of Korea with the end of the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War with the Treaty of Portsmouth. Korea became a protectorate of Japan after the 1905 signing of the Protectorate Treaty. Prince Itō was Korea’s first resident-general, but he was murdered by Korean independence activist An Jung-geun at Harbin train station in 1909. Korea was finally annexed in 1910 by the Japanese Empire.
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